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公平住屋

美國對於房地產的交易, 買賣及租賃有聯邦及各個州的法律必須遵守, 這些法律嚴格禁止在房地產交易的過程中,對種族、 膚色、 宗教、 性別、  殘障、  婚姻狀況及原國籍有歧視的行為, 這些法律是用來保護你的‧

以下列出一些有關重要的公平住屋法案:

  1. 美國聯邦1866年通過的民權法案 (Civil Rights Act ) 禁止在買賣及租賃房地產時有種族歧視的行為‧
     
  2. 1968年及1988年 民權法案的修正案 -1968 年的修正案把禁止歧視的對象除種族外還包括原國籍, 膚色與宗教‧ 1988年的公平住屋修正案中, 把歧視對象擴展到年齡、 性別、 以及殘障人士‧ 
     
  3. 公平住屋法案:
    除了以上修正案外,本法案促使公平住屋法案為一個全國的政策,適用於全美國‧本法案禁止在房地產銷售、出租時有歧視的行為 ,或因個人的種族、膚色、性別、宗教、殘障、婚姻狀況,及原國籍的關係而租或買不到房子‧
     
  4. 在房地產交易中,所有的賣主、買主、地產經紀、貸款仲介及貸款部門的辦事員應遵守在法律上他們應有權利及義務的規定‧
     
  5. 賣主的義務─  賣主或買主有義務不可在出售、貸款時對種族、膚色、性別、殘障、宗教、婚姻狀況及原國籍有歧視的行為,同時也不可經由他的地產經紀或銷售員有歧視的行為,他們是受限於反歧視的法律規定,賣主或屋主也不可在合同或租約中設定有歧視的條款,此外,賣主或屋主不可因歧視,拒絕出租或出售,也不可廣告他們的房地產只賣給有特別的種族、膚色、宗教、原國籍、性別、婚姻狀況或殘障特定人士‧
     
  6. 房地產專業人士的義務─  房地產代理人、貸款經紀以及貸款辦事官員,在房地產交易中不可因個人的種族、膚色、宗教、原國籍、性別、婚姻狀況及殘障兒有歧視的行為,這些人不可聽從於賣主或屋主的指示而違背法律,公平對待是很重要的‧
     
  7. 美國人殘障法案(American With Disabilities Act )─  本法案禁止在商業場所,或公共場地,對殘障人士有歧視的行為‧
     
  8. 公平信貸機會法案 (Equal Credit Opportunity Act ) ─  本法案使得任何人在申請貸款時因其種族、膚色、宗教、原國籍、性別、婚姻狀況及年紀,或是因申請人有部份收入來自政府資助而受到歧視變為不合法‧
      
  9. 當你在房地產交易當中發現有歧視的違法行為,你可以向當地聯邦的HUD辦公室投訴 或打電話到 202-708-1112或上網 www.hud.gov 舉報‧

 

Fair Housing
America has some laws that the house industry needs to follow. Any discrimination against colors, religions, sex, disability, and marriage status is strictly prohibited in the real estate business.
Here are some of the fair housing acts:
The Federation passed the Civil Rights Act in 1866; it stated that discrimination is not allowed in the real estate business.
In 1968 and 1988, the amendment of the Civil Rights Act included not just for the alien but race and religions. In 1988, the amendment extended to the age, sex, and disability.
 
Fair Housing Act:
Except the amendments mentioned, this act  probhibits discrimination of colors, race, sex, religions, disability, and marriage status during the selling or renting of housing.
All the sellers or the buyers should follow the laws and the rules.
Sellers’ duties – It is buyers and sellers’ duties not to reject the buyers just because of their colors, sex, race, disability, religions, and marriage status. Their advertisements shouldn’t mention that the house is only for a particular race of people.
Professional real estate agents’ duties – The real estate agents shouldn’t be sexist or racist. And they should never break the laws by listening to the sellers or buyers that discriminates against others.
American With Disabilities Act – The act stated that it’s prohibited to discriminate the disabilities in the commercial place or general public.
Equal Credit Opportunity – It’s not allowed to discriminate the people of different race, religions, sex, ages, or marriage status when they are applying for loans.
If you notice any of discriminations, you can call 202-708-1112 or go to www.hud.gov  office to report the violation.

 

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